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swirl Lesson 4: Vectors

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1: R Programming
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 1: Basic Building Blocks      2: Workspace and Files     
 3: Sequences of Numbers       4: Vectors                 
 5: Missing Values             6: Subsetting Vectors      
 7: Matrices and Data Frames   8: Logic                   
 9: Functions                 10: lapply and sapply       
11: vapply and tapply         12: Looking at Data         
13: Simulation                14: Dates and Times         
15: Base Graphics             
Selection: 4
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| The simplest and most common data structure in R is the vector.
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  |==                                                        |   3%
| Vectors come in two different flavors: atomic vectors and lists.
| An atomic vector contains exactly one data type, whereas a list
| may contain multiple data types. We'll explore atomic vectors
| further before we get to lists.
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  |===                                                       |   5%
| In previous lessons, we dealt entirely with numeric vectors,
| which are one type of atomic vector. Other types of atomic
| vectors include logical, character, integer, and complex. In this
| lesson, we'll take a closer look at logical and character
| vectors.
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  |=====                                                     |   8%
| Logical vectors can contain the values TRUE, FALSE, and NA (for
| 'not available'). These values are generated as the result of
| logical 'conditions'. Let's experiment with some simple
| conditions.
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  |======                                                    |  11%
| First, create a numeric vector num_vect that contains the values
| 0.5, 55, -10, and 6.
> num_vect<-c(0.5,55,-10,6)
| Excellent work!
  |========                                                  |  13%
| Now, create a variable called tf that gets the result of num_vect
| < 1, which is read as 'num_vect is less than 1'. > tf<- num_vect<1 | You nailed it! Good job! |========= | 16% | What do you think tf will look like? 1: a vector of 4 logical values 2: a single logical value Selection: 1 | You got it! |=========== | 18% | Print the contents of tf now. > tf
[1]  TRUE FALSE  TRUE FALSE
| You are amazing!
  |============                                              |  21%
| The statement num_vect < 1 is a condition and tf tells us whether
| each corresponding element of our numeric vector num_vect
| satisfies this condition.
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  |==============                                            |  24%
| The first element of num_vect is 0.5, which is less than 1 and
| therefore the statement 0.5 < 1 is TRUE. The second element of
| num_vect is 55, which is greater than 1, so the statement 55 < 1 | is FALSE. The same logic applies for the third and fourth | elements. ... |=============== | 26% | Let's try another. Type num_vect >= 6 without assigning the
| result to a new variable.
> num_vect >= 6
[1] FALSE  TRUE FALSE  TRUE
| All that hard work is paying off!
  |=================                                         |  29%
| This time, we are asking whether each individual element of
| num_vect is greater than OR equal to 6. Since only 55 and 6 are
| greater than or equal to 6, the second and fourth elements of the
| result are TRUE and the first and third elements are FALSE.
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  |==================                                        |  32%
| The `<` and `>=` symbols in these examples are called 'logical
| operators'. Other logical operators include `>`, `<=`, `==` for | exact equality, and `!=` for inequality. ... |==================== | 34% | If we have two logical expressions, A and B, we can ask whether | at least one is TRUE with A | B (logical 'or' a.k.a. 'union') or | whether they are both TRUE with A & B (logical 'and' a.k.a. | 'intersection'). Lastly, !A is the negation of A and is TRUE when | A is FALSE and vice versa. ... |===================== | 37% | It's a good idea to spend some time playing around with various | combinations of these logical operators until you get comfortable | with their use. We'll do a few examples here to get you started. ... |======================= | 39% | Try your best to predict the result of each of the following | statements. You can use pencil and paper to work them out if it's | helpful. If you get stuck, just guess and you've got a 50% chance | of getting the right answer! ... |======================== | 42% | (3 > 5) & (4 == 4)
1: TRUE
2: FALSE
Selection: 2
| You're the best!
  |==========================                                |  45%
| (TRUE == TRUE) | (TRUE == FALSE)
1: TRUE
2: FALSE
Selection: 1
| You are really on a roll!
  |===========================                               |  47%
| ((111 >= 111) | !(TRUE)) & ((4 + 1) == 5)
1: TRUE
2: FALSE
Selection: 1
| You got it right!
  |=============================                             |  50%
| Don't worry if you found these to be tricky. They're supposed to
| be. Working with logical statements in R takes practice, but your
| efforts will be rewarded in future lessons (e.g. subsetting and
| control structures).
...
  |===============================                           |  53%
| Character vectors are also very common in R. Double quotes are
| used to distinguish character objects, as in the following
| example.
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  |================================                          |  55%
| Create a character vector that contains the following words:
| "My", "name", "is". Remember to enclose each word in its own set
| of double quotes, so that R knows they are character strings.
| Store the vector in a variable called my_char.
> my_char <- c("my","name","is")
| One more time. You can do it! Or, type info() for more options.
| Type my_char <- c("My", "name", "is") to create a new variable | called my_char that contains a character vector of length 3. Make | sure that the commas separating the words are OUTSIDE of the | double quotes, or else R thinks the commas are part of the words. > my_char <- c("My","name","is") | Great job! |================================== | 58% | Print the contents of my_char to see what it looks like. > my_char
[1] "My"   "name" "is"  
| You are quite good my friend!
  |===================================                       |  61%
| Right now, my_char is a character vector of length 3. Let's say
| we want to join the elements of my_char together into one
| continuous character string (i.e. a character vector of length
| 1). We can do this using the paste() function.
...
  |=====================================                     |  63%
| Type paste(my_char, collapse = " ") now. Make sure there's a
| space between the double quotes in the `collapse` argument.
| You'll see why in a second.
> paste(my_char, collapse = " ")
[1] "My name is"
| You are really on a roll!
  |======================================                    |  66%
| The `collapse` argument to the paste() function tells R that when
| we join together the elements of the my_char character vector,
| we'd like to separate them with single spaces.
...
  |========================================                  |  68%
| It seems that we're missing something.... Ah, yes! Your name!
...
  |=========================================                 |  71%
| To add (or 'concatenate') your name to the end of my_char, use
| the c() function like this: c(my_char, "your_name_here"). Place
| your name in double quotes where I've put "your_name_here". Try
| it now, storing the result in a new variable called my_name.
> my_name <- c(my_char,"Clanzd") | You nailed it! Good job! |=========================================== | 74% | Take a look at the contents of my_name. > my_name
[1] "My"      "name"    "is"      "Clanzd"
| You are amazing!
  |============================================              |  76%
| Now, use the paste() function once more to join the words in
| my_name together into a single character string. Don't forget to
| say collapse = " "!
> paste(my_name, collapse=" ")
[1] "My name is Clanzd"
| All that hard work is paying off!
  |==============================================            |  79%
| In this example, we used the paste() function to collapse the
| elements of a single character vector. paste() can also be used
| to join the elements of multiple character vectors.
...
  |===============================================           |  82%
| In the simplest case, we can join two character vectors that are
| each of length 1 (i.e. join two words). Try paste("Hello",
| "world!", sep = " "), where the `sep` argument tells R that we
| want to separate the joined elements with a single space.
> paste("Hello","world!", sep=" ")
[1] "Hello world!"
| Your dedication is inspiring!
  |=================================================         |  84%
| For a slightly more complicated example, we can join two vectors,
| each of length 3. Use paste() to join the integer vector 1:3 with
| the character vector c("X", "Y", "Z"). This time, use sep = "" to
| leave no space between the joined elements.
> paste(1:3, c("X","Y","Z"),sep="")
[1] "1X" "2Y" "3Z"
| You are amazing!
  |==================================================        |  87%
| What do you think will happen if our vectors are of different
| length? (Hint: we talked about this in a previous lesson.)
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  |====================================================      |  89%
| Vector recycling! Try paste(LETTERS, 1:4, sep = "-"), where
| LETTERS is a predefined variable in R containing a character
| vector of all 26 letters in the English alphabet.
> paste(LETTERS,1:4,sep="-")
 [1] "A-1" "B-2" "C-3" "D-4" "E-1" "F-2" "G-3" "H-4" "I-1" "J-2"
[11] "K-3" "L-4" "M-1" "N-2" "O-3" "P-4" "Q-1" "R-2" "S-3" "T-4"
[21] "U-1" "V-2" "W-3" "X-4" "Y-1" "Z-2"
| All that practice is paying off!
  |=====================================================     |  92%
| Since the character vector LETTERS is longer than the numeric
| vector 1:4, R simply recycles, or repeats, 1:4 until it matches
| the length of LETTERS.
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  |=======================================================   |  95%
| Also worth noting is that the numeric vector 1:4 gets 'coerced'
| into a character vector by the paste() function.
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  |========================================================  |  97%
| We'll discuss coercion in another lesson, but all it really means
| is that the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the output above are no
| longer numbers to R, but rather characters "1", "2", "3", and
| "4".
...
  |==========================================================| 100%

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